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He and his wife, Catelyn Tully Michelle Fairley , have five children: Cersei also has two young sons: The High Sparrow Jonathan Pryce is the capital's religious leader.
Across the Narrow Sea, siblings Viserys Harry Lloyd and Daenerys Targaryen Emilia Clarke — the exiled children of the last king of the original ruling dynasty, who was overthrown by Robert Baratheon — are running for their lives and trying to win back the throne.
Martin's literary agent about the books he represented, and became interested in A Song of Ice and Fire as he had been a fan of fantasy fiction when young but had not read the books before.
Weiss and suggested that they adapt Martin's novels into a television series; Weiss finished the first novel in "maybe 36 hours".
According to Benioff, they won Martin over with their answer to his question, " Who is Jon Snow's mother? Before being approached by Benioff and Weiss, Martin had had other meetings with other scriptwriters, most of them wanting to turn it into a feature film.
Martin, however, deemed it "unfilmable" and impossible to be done as a feature film, stating that the size of one of his novels is as long as The Lord of the Rings , which had been adapted as three feature films.
Benioff added, "a fantasy movie of this scope, financed by a major studio, would almost certainly need a PG rating. That means no sex, no blood, no profanity.
The level of sex and violence would never have gone through. The series began development in January The intention was for each novel to yield a season's worth of episodes.
The first and second drafts of the pilot script by Benioff and Weiss were submitted in August  and June ,  respectively.
Although HBO liked both drafts,   a pilot was not ordered until November ;  the — Writers Guild of America strike may have delayed the process.
Nina Gold and Robert Sterne are the series' primary casting directors. The only exceptions were Peter Dinklage and Sean Bean , whom the writers wanted from the start; they were announced as joining the pilot in Although many of the cast returned after the first season, the producers had many new characters to cast for each of the following seasons.
Due to the large number of new characters, Benioff and Weiss postponed the introduction of several key characters in the second season and merged several characters into one or assigned plot functions to different characters.
Game of Thrones used seven writers in six seasons. Series creators David Benioff and D. Weiss , the showrunners, write most of the episodes each season.
Martin wrote one episode in each of the first four seasons. Martin did not write an episode for the later seasons, since he wanted to focus on completing the sixth novel The Winds of Winter.
Bryan Cogman , initially a script coordinator for the series,  was promoted to producer for the fifth season. Cogman, who wrote at least one episode for the first five seasons, is the only other writer in the writers' room with Benioff and Weiss.
Before his promotion, Vanessa Taylor a writer during the second and third seasons worked closely with Benioff and Weiss. Dave Hill joined the writing staff for the fifth season after working as an assistant to Benioff and Weiss.
Benioff and Weiss sometimes assign characters to particular writers; for example, Cogman was assigned to Arya Stark for the fourth season.
The writers spend several weeks writing a character outline, including what material from the novels to use and the overarching themes.
After these individual outlines are complete, they spend another two to three weeks discussing each main character's individual arc and arranging them episode by episode.
Cogman, who wrote two episodes for the fifth season, took a month and a half to complete both scripts. They are then read by Benioff and Weiss, who make notes, and parts of the script are rewritten.
All ten episodes are written before filming begins, since they are filmed out of order with two units in different countries.
Benioff and Weiss write each of their episodes together, with one of them writing the first half of the script and the other the second half.
After that they begin with passing the drafts back and forth to make notes and rewrite parts of it.
Benioff and Weiss originally intended to adapt the entire, still-incomplete A Song of Ice and Fire series of novels for television.
In April , the showrunners' plan was to shoot 13 more episodes after the sixth season: The first two seasons adapted one novel each.
For the later seasons, its creators see Game of Thrones as an adaptation of A Song of Ice and Fire as a whole rather than the individual novels;  this enables them to move events across novels, according to screen-adaptation requirements.
Principal photography for the first season was scheduled to begin on July 26, ,  and the primary location was the Paint Hall Studios in Belfast , Northern Ireland.
The first season's southern scenes were filmed in Malta, a change in location from the pilot episode's Moroccan sets. Dominic monastery all used for scenes in the Red Keep.
Filming of the second season's southern scenes shifted from Malta to Croatia, where the city of Dubrovnik and nearby locations allowed exterior shots of a walled, coastal medieval city.
The island of Lokrum , the St. Dominic monastery in the coastal town of Trogir , the Rector's Palace in Dubrovnik, and the Dubac quarry a few kilometers east were used for scenes set in Qarth.
Third-season production returned to Dubrovnik, with the Walls of Dubrovnik, Fort Lovrijenac and nearby locations again used for scenes in King's Landing and the Red Keep.
Trsteno Arboretum , a new location, is the garden of the Tyrells in King's Landing. The third season also returned to Morocco including the city of Essaouira to film Daenerys' scenes in Essos.
Each ten-episode season of Game of Thrones has four to six directors, who usually direct back-to-back episodes. Alan Taylor has directed seven episodes, the most episodes of the series.
Brian Kirk directed three episodes during the first season, and Tim Van Patten directed the series' first two episodes.
Neil Marshall directed two episodes, both with large battle scenes: Weiss have directed two episodes together but only credited one each episode, which was determined after a coin toss.
Alik Sakharov was the pilot's cinematographer. The series has had a number of cinematographers,  and has received seven Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Cinematography for a Single-Camera Series nominations.
Michele Clapton was costume designer for Game of Thrones ' first five seasons before she was replaced by April Ferry. The costumes used in the series drew inspiration from a number of sources, such as Japanese and Persian armour.
Dothraki dress resembles that of the Bedouin one was made out of fish skins to resemble dragon scales , and the Wildlings wear animal skins like the Inuit.
Björk 's Alexander McQueen high-neckline dresses inspired Margaery Tyrell 's funnel-neck outfit, and prostitutes' dresses are designed for easy removal.
About two dozen wigs are used for the actresses. Applying the wigs is time-consuming; Emilia Clarke , for example, requires about two hours to style her brunette hair with a platinum-blonde wig and braids.
Other actors, such as Jack Gleeson and Sophie Turner , receive frequent hair coloring. For characters such as Daenerys Clarke and her Dothraki, their hair, wigs and costumes are processed to appear as if they have not been washed for weeks.
Most of the environment builds were done as 2. Because the effects became more complex in subsequent seasons including CGI creatures, fire, and water , German-based Pixomondo became the lead visual-effects producer; nine of its twelve facilities contributed to the project for season two, with Stuttgart the lead.
The muscle and wing movements of the adolescent dragons in seasons four and five were based largely on those of a chicken. Pixomondo retained a team of 22 to 30 people which focused solely on visualizing Daenerys Targaryen's dragons, with the average production time per season of 20 to 22 weeks.
Unusual for a television series, the sound team receives a rough cut of a full season and approaches it as a ten-hour feature film.
Although seasons one and two had different sound teams, one team has been in charge of sound since then.
For dragon screams, mating tortoises and dolphin, seal, lion and bird sounds have been used. The series' title sequence was created by production studio Elastic for HBO.
Creative director Angus Wall and his collaborators received the Primetime Emmy Award for Main Title Design for the sequence,  which depicts a three-dimensional map of the series' fictional world.
The map is projected on the inside of a sphere which is centrally lit by a small sun in an armillary sphere. Accompanied by the title music , the names of the principal cast and creative staff appear.
The sequence concludes after about 90 seconds with the title card and brief opening credits indicating the episode's writer s and director.
Its composition changes as the story progresses, with new locations replacing those featuring less prominently or not at all. The music for the series was composed by Ramin Djawadi.
Her theme started first with a single instrument, a cello , and Djawadi later incorporated more instruments for it. The Westerosi characters of Game of Thrones speak British-accented English, often but not consistently with the accent of the English region corresponding to the character's Westerosi region.
The Northerner Eddard Stark speaks in actor Sean Bean's native northern accent , and the southern Lord Tywin Lannister speaks with a southern accent , while characters from Dorne speak English with a Spanish accent.
Although the common language of Westeros is represented as English, the producers charged linguist David J. Peterson with constructing Dothraki and Valyrian languages based on the few words in the novels;  Dothraki and Valyrian dialogue is often subtitled in English.
It has been reported that during the series these fictional languages have been heard by more people than the Welsh , Irish , and Scots Gaelic languages combined.
Tourism Ireland has a Game of Thrones -themed marketing campaign similar to New Zealand's Tolkien-related advertising. Tourism organizations elsewhere reported increases in bookings after their locations appeared in Game of Thrones.
In , bookings through LateRooms. The following year, bookings doubled in Ouarzazate , Morocco the location of Daenerys' season-three scenes.
Game of Thrones is broadcast by HBO in the United States and by its local subsidiaries or other pay television services in other countries, at the same time as in the U.
The series' broadcast in China on CCTV , begun in , was heavily edited to remove scenes of sex and violence in accordance with a Chinese practice of censoring Western TV series to prevent what the People's Daily calls "negative effects and hidden security dangers".
This resulted in viewer complaints about the incoherence of what remained. The box set includes extra background and behind-the-scenes material but no deleted scenes, since nearly all the footage shot for the first season was used.
A paperweight in the shape of a dragon egg is included in the set. DVD-Blu-ray box sets and digital downloads of the second season became available on February 19, Game of Thrones has been widely pirated , primarily outside the U.
Ambassador to Australia Jeff Bleich issued a statement condemning Australian piracy of the series in Delays in availability apart from HBO and its affiliates  before and the cost of subscriptions to these services have been cited as causes of the series' illegal distribution.
For "combating piracy", HBO said in that it intended to make its content more widely available within a week of the U.
Observers, including series director David Petrarca  and Time Warner CEO Jeff Bewkes , said that illegal downloads did not hurt the series' prospects; it benefited from " buzz " and social commentary, and the high piracy rate did not significantly translate to lost subscriptions.
According to Polygon , HBO's relaxed attitude towards piracy and the sharing of login credentials amounted to a premium-television " free-to-play " model.
Weiss had mixed feelings, saying that the series was expensive to produce and "if it doesn't make the money back, then it ceases to exist".
However, he was pleased that so many people "enjoy the show so much they can't wait to get their hands on it. Game of Thrones was highly anticipated by fans before its premiere,   and has become a critical and commercial success.
According to The Guardian , by it was "the biggest drama" and "the most talked about show" on television. Although Game of Thrones was dismissed by some critics before it began,  its success has been credited with an increase in the popularity of the fantasy genre.
On the eve of the second season's premiere, a CNN. The series' popularity increased sales of the A Song of Ice and Fire novels republished in tie-in editions , which remained at the top of bestseller lists for months.
According to The Daily Beast , Game of Thrones was a favorite of sitcom writers and the series has been referred to in other TV series.
Game of Thrones has added to the popular vocabulary. The first season's scene in which Petyr Baelish explains his motives or background while prostitutes had sex in the background gave rise to the word " sexposition " for providing exposition with sex and nudity.
In the novels and the TV series, the word is a title meaning the wife of a Khal warlord in the Dothraki language held by Daenerys Targaryen , and not actually a name.
Game of Thrones has received critical acclaim, although the series' frequent use of nudity and violence has been criticized.
The performances of the cast have received immense praise. Peter Dinklage 's "charming, morally ambiguous, and self-aware"  Tyrion, who earned him Emmy and Golden Globe awards, was noted.
Times before Tyrion became the series' central figure in season two. The series has a rating of 97 percent on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 8.
First-season reviewers said the series had high production values, a fully realized world and compelling characters. Fully produced by the pay cabler and already a global phenomenon after only one season, the fantasy skein was a gamble that has paid off handsomely".
Entertainment Weekly praised its "vivid, vital, and just plain fun" storytelling  and, according to the Hollywood Reporter , the series made a "strong case for being one of TV's best series"; its seriousness made it the only drama comparable to Mad Men or Breaking Bad.
The third season was extremely well received by critics, with Metacritic giving it a score of 91 out of indicating "universal acclaim".
It has a score of 73 on Metacritic based on nine reviews , indicating "generally favorable reviews". Despite its otherwise enthusiastic reception by critics, Game of Thrones has been criticized for the amount of female nudity, violence, and sexual violence especially against women it depicts, and for the manner in which it depicts these themes.
The Atlantic called the series' "tendency to ramp up the sex, violence, and—especially—sexual violence" of the source material "the defining weakness" of the adaptation.
Martin responded that he feels obliged to be truthful about history and human nature, and that rape and sexual violence are common in war; and that omitting them from the narrative would have rung false and undermined one of his novels' themes , its historical realism.
The amount of sex and nudity in the series, especially in scenes that are incidental to the plot, was the focus of much of the criticism aimed at the series in its first and second seasons.
Stephen Dillane , who portrays Stannis Baratheon , likened the series' frequent explicit scenes to "German porn from the s". In the third season , which saw Theon Greyjoy lengthily tortured and eventually emasculated , the series was also criticized for its use of torture.
A scene in the fourth season's episode " Breaker of Chains ", in which Jaime Lannister rapes his sister and lover Cersei , triggered a broad public discussion about the series' depiction of sexual violence against women.
According to Dave Itzkoff of The New York Times , the scene caused outrage, in part because of comments by director Alex Graves that the scene became "consensual by the end".
Itzkoff also wrote that critics fear that "rape has become so pervasive in the drama that it is almost background noise: Club wrote that the series' choice to portray this sexual act, and a similar one between Daenerys Targaryen and Khal Drogo in the first season—both described as consensual in the source novels—as a rape appeared to be an act of " exploitation for shock value".
Most reviewers, including those from Vanity Fair , Salon , The Atlantic , and The Daily Beast , found the scene gratuitous and artistically unnecessary.
Senator Claire McCaskill said that she would no longer watch it. As the sixth and seventh seasons saw Daenerys, Sansa and Cersei assume ruling positions, Alyssa Rosenberg of the Washington Post noted that the series could be seen as a "long-arc revenge fantasy about what happens when women who have been brutalized and raped gain power"—namely, that their past leaves them too broken to do anything but commit brutal acts in their own turn, and that their personal liberation does not affect the social change needed to protect others from suffering.
BBC News said in that "the passion and the extreme devotion of fans" had created a phenomenon unlike anything related to other popular TV series, manifesting itself in fan fiction ,  Game of Thrones -themed burlesque routines and parents naming their children after series characters; writers quoted attributed this success to the rich detail, moral ambiguity, sexual explicitness and epic scale of the series and novels.
As of [update] , about 58 percent of series viewers were male and 42 percent female, and the average male viewer was 41 years old.
In , the sixth season received the most nominations for the 68th Primetime Emmy Awards In , the seventh season received the most nominations at the 70th Primetime Emmy Awards The first season averaged 2.
The series set records on pay-television channels in the United Kingdom with a average audience of more than five million on all platforms  and Australia with a cumulative average audience of 1.
The series has inspired several video games based on the TV series and novels. The strategy game Game of Thrones Ascent ties into the HBO series, making characters and settings available to players as they appear on television.
Game of Thrones , a spin-off of the Reigns strategy video game series, is in development by Nerial , published by Devolver Digital , and set to release in October HBO has licensed a variety of merchandise based on Game of Thrones , including games , replica weapons and armor, jewelry, bobblehead dolls by Funko , beer by Ommegang and apparel.
The Official Guide to Game of Thrones , a series of podcasts presented by Geoff Lloyd and produced by Koink, has been released on the Sky Atlantic website and the UK iTunes store during the series' run; a new podcast, with analysis and cast interviews, is released after each episode.
The page book, illustrated with concept art and behind-the-scenes photographs, covers the creation of the series' first two seasons and its principal characters and families.
After the Thrones is a live aftershow in which hosts Andy Greenwald and Chris Ryan discuss episodes of the series. Each season's Blu-ray and DVD set contains several short animated sequences narrated by the cast as their characters as they detail events in the history of Westeros.
All of the writers were to be working individually with George R. Martin, who also co-wrote two of the scripts. Weiss and David Benioff said that they would not be involved with any of the projects, and want to enjoy the successor series as fans.
He ruled out Robert's Rebellion the overthrow of Daenerys's father by Robert Baratheon as a possible idea, and revealed that some may be set outside Westeros.
Notable events of that period include the foundation of powerful Houses, the Long Night when the White Walkers first descended upon Westeros, and the Andal Invasion when the Andals invaded from Essos and conquered most of Westeros.
For the second season and the average ratings of the first season, see "Game of Thrones: Archived from the original on September 1, Retrieved April 18, For the third season, see "Game of Thrones: For the fourth season, see "Game of Thrones: For the fifth season, see "Game of Thrones: For the sixth season, see "Game of Thrones: Retrieved April 24, For the seventh season, see "Game of Thrones: Archived from the original on September 16, Retrieved August 29, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
American fantasy drama television series adapted from A Song of Ice and Fire. This article is about the television series.
For other uses, see A Game of Thrones disambiguation. List of Game of Thrones episodes. Synopsis of A Song of Ice and Fire. World of A Song of Ice and Fire.
Themes in A Song of Ice and Fire. List of Game of Thrones characters. I had worked in Hollywood myself for about 10 years, from the late '80s to the '90s.
All of my first drafts tended to be too big or too expensive. I always hated the process of having to cut. I said, 'I'm sick of this, I'm going to write something that's as big as I want it to be, and it's going to have a cast of characters that go into the thousands, and I'm going to have huge castles, and battles, and dragons.
Game of Thrones title sequence. Music of Game of Thrones. A Song of Ice and Fire fandom. List of awards and nominations received by Game of Thrones.
Works based on A Song of Ice and Fire. List of A Song of Ice and Fire video games. Taking place thousands of years before the events of Game of Thrones , the series chronicles the world's descent from the golden Age of Heroes into its darkest hour.
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Creating the North and Beyond. Eligible if purchased with select payment methods. Similar Popular with similar viewers. Once Upon A Time.
This is the story of two parallel worlds: Relationships will be formed, bonds will be made, battle lines will be drawn and love may be the only thing that can break the curse.
Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Based on the volume book series by Terry Brooks, The Shannara Chronicles tells the epic story of an Elvin princess, a bandit and a half-Elf tasked with stopping the end of the world.
The people of Arcadia, Missouri are forever changed when deceased loved ones suddenly start to return. An 8-year-old American boy wakes up alone in a rice paddy in a rural Chinese province with no idea how he got there.
Details start to emerge when the boy, who calls himself Jacob, recalls that his hometown is Arcadia, and an Immigration agent, J.
Martin Bellamy, takes him there. The home he claims as his own is occupied by an elderly couple, Henry and Lucille Langston, who lost their son, Jacob, more than 30 years ago.